IN MEMORIAM > ARCHER, Stuart Malcolm On 17-Dec-2014

IN MEMORIAM > ARCHER, Stuart Malcolm On 17-Dec-2014
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IN MEMORIAM >
ARCHER, Stuart Malcolm who Died On 17-Dec-2014

ARCHER Stuart Died 17-Dec-2014

Stuart died On 17 December, after a long and very bravely fought fight against bowel cancer, at his home in Newport.

Stuart was aged 66 when he died.

He leaves his wife and partner through his illness Trish and was dearly loved by Suzanne and Tom.
He will be missed not only by his family but by many friends and the town of Chepstow, where he had worked with Sandra and the staff at Archer & Co. and had gained the respect of many for his courteous behaviour and dedicated service to his clients. He will also be missed and remembered by those who knew of his illness and his resolute determination to survive with humour as long as possible, making the most of every moment he could.
I was privileged to have had several very private conversations with Stuart during his illness & treatment where, even when he knew the outcome was inevitable, he courageously sought out opportunities to be used in new trials that would not just prolong his own life but would provide information to help others following down the path!
My thoughts are with his family and those whom he had worked with for so many years, who miss him greatly, at this challenging time, when we remember his life on the anniversary of his death.
A Celebration for the life of Stuart Malcolm Archer, in accord with his wishes, was held at St. Pierre Golf and Country Club on Thursday 8th January 2015 at 13:00hrs.
The service of commemoration at St. Pierre was held after a private family ceremony at the Crematorium and was conducted by a Civil Celebrant Gill Fortescue with an extensive, and very appropriate eulogy.
The Eulogy was delivered by Stuart’s long term friend David Evans.

No flowers, by request, however donations for St. David’s Hospice Care may still be sent, in memory of his life, to:

Philip Blatchly & Son,
5 Station Road,
Chepstow,
Monmouthshire,
NP16 5PA.
TEL: 01291 624939

.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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11 Days To Shrink Or Destroy Breast Cancer

11 Days To Shrink Or Destroy Breast Cancer
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Breast Cancer Trial Kills Tumours In 11 Days

Around a quarter of women given a combined treatment of drugs in a clinical study saw their tumours shrink or disappear.

08:01, UK,Friday 11 March 2016

Breast cancer chemotherapy research

A consultant analysing a mammogram. (File Pic)

Using Herceptin together with another powerful breast cancer drug before surgery could shrink or destroy tumours in just 11 days, a study has found.

Some patients may be spared chemotherapy if they are given a combination of the drugs Tyverb (lapatinib) and Herceptin (trastuzumab) immediately after diagnosis, according to the research by a team of British doctors.

The medics, who presented their study to experts at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Amsterdam, said their findings had “groundbreaking potential”.

Some 257 women with an aggressive form of cancer – HER2 – were involved in the clinical trial and either received no treatment, one of the drugs or a combination of them.

Around a quarter of the women on the combined treatment saw their tumours shrink or disappear.

Trial co-leader Professor Judith Bliss, from the Institute of Cancer Research in London, said it was “unexpected to see quite such dramatic responses to the trastuzumab and lapatinib within 11 days”.

She added: “Our results are a strong foundation on which to build further trials of combination anti-HER2 therapies prior to surgery – which could reduce the number of women who require subsequent chemotherapy, which is also very effective but can lead to long-term side effects.”

At present, women usually have their tumour removed during surgery followed by a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapies and targeted drugs such as Herceptin.

Professor Arnie Purushotham, senior clinical adviser at Cancer Research UK, which funded the study, said: “These results are very promising if they stand up in the long run and could be the starting step of finding a new way to treat HER2 positive breast cancers.”

Around 5,300 to 8,000 women a year are diagnosed with HER2 positive breast cancer.

To view the original article CLICK HERE
.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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IN MEMORIAM > ARCHER, Stuart Malcolm – On 17-Dec-2014

IN MEMORIAM > ARCHER, Stuart Malcolm On 17-Dec-2014
.

 Please Be Sure To

& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide

To Give Hope & Information

 .

IN MEMORIAM >
ARCHER, Stuart Malcolm who Died On 17-Dec-2014

ARCHER Stuart Died 17-Dec-2014

Stuart died On 17 December, after a long and very bravely fought fight against bowel cancer, at his home in Newport.

Stuart was aged 66 when he died.

He leaves his wife and partner through his illness Trish and was dearly loved by Suzanne and Tom.
He will be missed not only by his family but by many friends and the town of Chepstow, where he had worked with Sandra and the staff at Archer & Co. and had gained the respect of many for his courteous behaviour and dedicated service to his clients. He will also be missed and remembered by those who knew of his illness and his resolute determination to survive with humour as long as possible, making the most of every moment he could.
I was privileged to have had several very private conversations with Stuart during his illness & treatment where, even when he knew the outcome was inevitable, he courageously sought out opportunities to be used in new trials that would not just prolong his own life but would provide information to help others following down the path!
My thoughts are with his family and those whom he had worked with for so many years, who miss him greatly, at this challenging time, when we remember his life on the anniversary of his death.
A Celebration for the life of Stuart Malcolm Archer, in accord with his wishes, was held at St. Pierre Golf and Country Club on Thursday 8th January 2015 at 13:00hrs.
The service of commemoration at St. Pierre was held after a private family ceremony at the Crematorium and was conducted by a Civil Celebrant Gill Fortescue with an extensive, and very appropriate eulogy.
The Eulogy was delivered by Stuart’s long term friend David Evans.

No flowers, by request, however donations for St. David’s Hospice Care may still be sent, in memory of his life, to:

Philip Blatchly & Son,
5 Station Road,
Chepstow,
Monmouthshire,
NP16 5PA.
TEL: 01291 624939

.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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IARC Report: The Carcinogenic Effects of Processed & Red Meat

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IARC Report:
The Carcinogenic Effects of
Processed & Red Meat

PRESS RELEASE N° 240
26 October 2015

IARC Monographs evaluate:
consumption of red meat
and processed meat

Lyon, France, 26 October 2015
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, has evaluated the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat.
Red meat
After thoroughly reviewing the accumulated scientific literature, a Working Group of 22 experts from 10 countries convened by the IARC Monographs Programme classified the consumption of red meat as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), based on limited evidence that the consumption of red meat causes cancer in humans and strong mechanistic evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect.
This association was observed mainly for colorectal cancer, but associations were also seen for pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer.
Processed meat
Processed meat was classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans that the consumption of processed meat causes colorectal cancer.
Meat consumption and its effects
The consumption of meat varies greatly between countries, with from a few percent up to 100% of people eating red meat, depending on the country, and somewhat lower proportions eating processed meat.
The experts concluded that each 50 gram portion of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%.
“For an individual, the risk of developing colorectal cancer because of their consumption of processed meat remains small, but this risk increases with the amount of meat consumed,” says Dr Kurt Straif, Head of the IARC Monographs Programme.
“In view of the large number of people who consume processed meat, the global impact on cancer incidence is of public health importance.”
The IARC Working Group considered more than 800 studies that investigated associations of more than a dozen types of cancer with the consumption of red meat or processed meat in many countries and populations with diverse diets.
The most influential evidence came from large prospective cohort studies conducted over the past 20 years.
Public health
”These findings further support current public health recommendations to limit intake of meat,” says Dr Christopher Wild, Director of IARC.
“At the same time, red meat has nutritional value. Therefore, these results are important in enabling governments and international regulatory agencies to conduct risk assessments, in order to balance the risks and benefits of eating red meat and processed meat and to provide the best possible dietary recommendations.”
IARC Monographs evaluate consumption of red meat and processed meat
Note to the Editor:
Red meat
refers to all types of mammalian muscle meat, such as beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, and goat.
Processed meat
refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to enhance flavour or improve preservation.
Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but processed meats may also contain other red meats, poultry, offal, or meat by-products such as blood.
Examples of processed meat include hot dogs (frankfurters), ham, sausages, corned beef, and biltong or beef jerky as well as canned meat and meat-based preparations and sauces.
A summary of the final evaluations is available online in The Lancet Oncology, and the detailed assessments will be published as Volume 114 of the IARC Monographs.
Read the IARC Monographs Q&A
Read the IARC Monographs Q&A
on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat.
For more information,
please contact Véronique Terrasse, Communications Group, at +33 (0)4 72 73 83 66 or terrassev@iarc.fr or Dr Nicolas Gaudin, IARC Communications, at com@iarc.fr
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
is part of the World Health Organization.
Its mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and to develop scientific strategies for cancer control.
The Agency is involved in both epidemiological and laboratory research and disseminates scientific information through publications, meetings, courses, and fellowships.
Photo

A W.H.O. report on Monday warned about a cancer risk linked with eating processed meats. CreditÁngel Franco/The New York Times
On Monday the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, published an analysis linking colorectal cancer to the consumption of processed meats and red meat. Here are answers to a few questions about the report.

How might meats be linked to colorectal cancer?
Processed meats like hot dogs and sausages have been salted, cured or smoked to enhance flavor and improve preservation. Scientists have long worried that this processing leads to the formation of potentially carcinogenic chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in these products.

The concern with red meats — beef, pork and lamb — has more to do with the cooking, not the processing. Grilling, barbecuing and pan-frying meat creates potential carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines.

The report finds a link between consumption of processed meats and colorectal cancer (and perhaps other cancers), but also acknowledged that the link between red meat and cancer has not been proved.

“Eating red meat has not yet been established as a cause of cancer,” the I.A.R.C. said in a handout accompanying its report.

Is there a safer way to cook meat?
There is just not enough data to know for sure whether broiling or boiling meats might lower cancer risk.

  1. What exactly is the risk?

    Small, compared with smoking or alcohol consumption. Colorectal cancer is the third most common non-skin cancer in the United States, and will bediagnosed in an estimated 133,000 patients this year, a wide majority of them over age 50. The lifetime risk is about 5 percent.

    W.H.O. estimated that 50 grams daily of processed meat or 100 grams daily of red meat might increase the risk of colorectal cancer by 18 percent and 17percent, in that order, over the absolute risk — if indeed red meat were related to cancer at all, which the report also acknowledged is not known.

    Most of the data reviewed by the W.H.O. are drawn from population studies, and many experts question whether these risk estimates can be applied to individuals who may have other risks for colorectal cancer.

  2. Is there any way to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer?

    There are several ways. People who eat diets rich in fruits, vegetables and fiber are at lower risk, as are those who exercise. Obesity, smoking and heavy alcohol consumption increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The incidence has been declining for 20 years, in part because of colonoscopy screenings. Daily low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk, but it has side effects and most experts do not recommend its use in people at average risk who do not also have cardiovascular disease.

To view the original of this article CLICK HERE

For the NHS View:

Processed meat ’causes cancer’ warns WHO report

Tuesday October 27 2015

Current UK recommendations are to eat no more than 70g of processed meat a dayProcessed meats have been linked to bowel cancer

What is the issue?

“Processed meat ranks alongside smoking as major cause of cancer, World Health Organisation [WHO] says,” The Daily Telegraph reports. It has been ranked as a group one carcinogen – the same ranking as cigarettes, alcohol and asbestos.

The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) released a report evaluating the link between the consumption of red and processed meat and cancer. A question and answer factsheet was also published.

The report explained red meat refers to unprocessed meat such as beef, veal, pork and lamb, while processed meat has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes.

The largest body of evidence is for the link with colorectal (bowel) cancer

How was the report received by the media?

The quality of the UK media’s reporting was mixed. Some sources fell into the trap of assuming that since processed meat had been ranked as a group one carcinogen, it meant it was as dangerous as other substances in the group. This led to headlines such as the Daily Express’, “Processed meat is as bad as smoking”, which is simply untrue.

While any substance ranked as a group one carcinogen is known to cause cancer, this doesn’t meant the risk of cancer is the same for all substances. A bacon sandwich is not as dangerous as being exposed to weapons grade plutonium, and smoking a pack of 20 cigarettes a day is far deadlier than eating a ham roll.

The Daily Mail and The Guardian did make an effort to put the risk of eating processed meat into context. Both papers, via their respective websites, provided a link to an extremely useful infographic produced by Cancer Research UK.

A key statistic provided by the infographic is that if everyone stopped smoking, there would be 64,500 fewer cases of cancer a year in the UK, compared with 8,800 fewer cases if everyone stopped eating processed or red meat.  

What evidence is the advice based on?

The link between red and processed meat and cancer is not new, and there has been a large body of research evidence to suggest bowel cancer is more common when these food items are consumed. According to Cancer Research UK, 21% of bowel cancers and 3% of all cancers are caused by red meat.

The WHO Working Group assessed more than 800 observational studies that investigated the association between cancer and the consumption of red meat across a range of countries, ethnicities and diets.

Data from the studies was analysed to investigate the link. Studies that were better quality, where the observations were prospective – that is, diet was assessed before looking at cancer development – were considered more reliable, and their findings were given greater weight.

The researchers also preferentially looked for studies with larger sample sizes, that had used validated questionnaires, and had controlled for potential health and lifestyle confounders that may be influencing the link. However, it was not possible to avoid all sources of bias and confounding, particularly for red meat, where data availability was limited.  

What are the risks?

Positive links between colorectal cancer and processed meat were found in 12 of 18 cohort studies and six of nine case-control studiesexamining the meat.

Looking at a review that had pooled the results of 10 cohort studies, the Working Group found an increase of 100g of red meat a day increased the risk of colorectal cancer by 17% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.31), and 50g of processed meat a day increased the risk by 18% (95% CI 1.10 to 1.28).

There was also data available linking red meat consumption withpancreatic cancer and prostate cancer, and processed meat withstomach cancer.

As a result of these findings, the WHO Working Group has classified processed meat as “carcinogenic to humans” on the basis of sufficient evidence to draw a link with colorectal cancer and an association with stomach cancer.

There was a limited amount of evidence available when assessing red meat, and this was therefore classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans”. 

How much red meat is it safe to eat?

The advice from the WHO Working Group supports current public health recommendations to limit intake of red and processed meat.

If you currently eat more than 90g (cooked weight) of red and processed meat a day, the Department of Health advises you cut down to 70g.

Ninety grams is equivalent to around three thinly cut slices of beef, lamb or pork, where each slice is about the size of half a piece of sliced bread. A cooked breakfast containing two typical British sausages and two rashers of bacon is equivalent to 130g.

It is unnecessary to cut red meat out all together as it is a good source of nutrients, including protein, iron, zinc and vitamin B12.

If you currently eat a large amount of red and processed meats, it might be good for you to cut down. Some ways to do this are:

  • eating smaller portions of meat
  • switching to chicken or fish
  • keeping a few days a week red meat-free
  • add beans or pulses such as kidney beans, chickpeas and lentils to replace some of the meat in dishes
  • instead of bacon, chorizo or salami, use chicken or vegetarian sausages

Analysis by Bazian. Edited by NHS Choices. Follow NHS Choices on Twitter. Join the Healthy Evidence forum.

Analysis by Bazian

Edited by NHS Choices

To view the original of this analysis CLICK HERE

.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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Victoria Derbyshire Has Her Mastectomy & Reconstruction

Victoria Derbyshire Has Her Mastectomy & Reconstruction
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Victoria Derbyshire’s breast cancer diary

  • 12 October 2015
  • From the section Health
Media captionVictoria Derbyshire: “Today I had a mastectomy. I feel all right, I can’t believe it”

The BBC journalist and presenter Victoria Derbyshire was diagnosed with breast cancer in July, and had a mastectomy last month. She decided to record a diary with her thoughts after surgery to try to help demystify the treatment.

“The word cancer has such a chilling effect on people, me included, but I’ve learned over the past few weeks that this illness doesn’t have to be elevated to some uber-powerful status. It’s simply an illness that the NHS treat with expertise and care,” she says in the video.

Derbyshire, 47, was diagnosed with lobular breast cancer, which means it develops in the lobes of the breast and spreads to surrounding tissue – some 10% of breast cancers are this type.

She had a mastectomy on 24 September at Ashford Hospital in Surrey, part of the Ashford and St Peter’s Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

“Today I had a mastectomy. I feel all right, I can’t believe it,” she says in her hospital bed, just hours after the operation.

“When I woke up from the anaesthetic I did cry. It was just relief, such a relief. The malignant tumour in my right breast is gone, two or three lymph nodes are gone,” she explains.

“Three lymph nodes were taken away as they had tiny, tiny, bits of cancerous cells, so they took them out and will analyse that tissue, and that will guide the medical professionals in terms of whether I end up having radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.”

‘So inspiring’

Derbyshire praises the treatment she has received from NHS staff, describing it as “awesome”. “They are so inspiring and caring and I feel so grateful to them,” she adds.

She says she’s in some pain, but not much, as it’s being controlled by painkillers. “It feels like someone has punched me in the right-hand side, but it’s not the end of the world, it’s really not.

“It reminds me of, if you’ve got boys and you’re playing football with them and they tackle you a bit too hard and run into you, bash you because they don’t realise your chest is so sensitive. It’s just achy and dull and not searing by any stretch of the imagination.”


Watch Victoria’s diary in full here.


Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK – one in eight women will be diagnosed with it. It’s the second most common cause of death from cancer in women in the UK.

But more than 85% of people survive breast cancer beyond five years.

Derbyshire says her personal approach to it has been very upbeat as well as pragmatic.

Victoria Derbyshire five days after her operation

Image caption Five days later, Derbyshire says she’s not in very much pain
“Everyone who’s diagnosed with cancer, I’ve learned, has a different story, a different experience and a different way of approaching it. I, for what it’s worth, don’t feel like I’m battling cancer, I don’t feel that I’m fighting cancer, I am simply being treated for cancer,” she explains.

“The reason why I wanted to talk about what happened to me is because I’m a pretty open person, but also because more than one in three people will be diagnosed with cancer at some point in their lifetime and here’s the thing – having cancer is manageable, it can be manageable. Having a mastectomy is totally doable. I didn’t know those things until I got cancer. And that’s what I want to tell people.

“I know everyone’s different when they’re diagnosed – every cancer is different, everyone has a different experience, but that’s mine and I hope you don’t mind me sharing it with you.”

‘Really positive’

Derbyshire left hospital the day after the operation, and, in an update recorded five days later in the park with her puppy Gracie, she says she’s not in very much pain unless she accidentally pulls herself sharply.

“I’m restricted in my movement – I’m up and about, I can walk, but I can’t really use my right-hand side. I couldn’t lift a book, or a laptop, I can’t hold a shower head to wash my hair or use my right hand to brush my teeth, so that’s slightly frustrating but it’s not the end of the world,” she explains.

After receiving results from the tissue removed from her during the operation, Derbyshire has been told she needs radiotherapy and chemotherapy. She will have it in the coming months and will present her programme as much as she can during her treatment. She’s next back on air on 20 October.

“I’m not worried about that as the cancer is out of me, it’s gone. That’s just the next part of the treatment, the next part of the process. And in this whole process I haven’t actually felt ill once, and it’s bizarre,” she says.

“I feel really positive, I’ve got no reason not to feel positive. My over-riding emotion is that I have to make sure that this cancer doesn’t come back.”

Macmillan and Breast Cancer Care were consulted during the making of the diary.

To view the original article just CLICK HERE

More stories

  • Video Elizabeth Hurley on breast cancer awareness campaign CLICK HERE
    9 October 2015
  • Breast cancer treatment: Drug pertuzumab licensed CLICK HERE
    29 September 2015
  • Genetic clue to breast cancer relapses CLICK HERE
    25 September 2015

Related Internet links

  • Breast Cancer Care – The breast cancer support charity CLICK HERE
  • Macmillan Cancer Support CLICK HERE
.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
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UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
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NCDF – National Cancer Drug Fund List As At Sept-2015

NCDF – National Cancer Drug Fund List As At Sept-2015
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Hi,

if you wish to see if you are to be allowed to live longer as a cancer patient or if your life, at an acceptable quality, is to be cut short, to save money, the NICE approved National Cancer Drug Fund (NCDF) approved list of drugs for cancer patients being treated by the NHS you may well findof interest.

The 24 page .pdf NHS list as at 04-Sep=2015 can be found if you CLICK HERE

.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
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To Save Money 5,500 Cancer Patients Condemned To Die Sooner To Save Money

To Save Money 5,500 Cancer Patients Condemned To Die Sooner To Save Money
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Hi,
medical professionals estimate that 5,500 cancer patients will die early due to the NHS being forced to withold treatments known to prolongue their life in acceptable quality – to save money.

This announcement comes at a time when we are reliably informed that the NHS is willingly spending £Millions on holiday homes and holidays for some patients and operating a VIP service for MPs attending A&E!

It is my opinion, having spent considerable time in and around hospitals ALL NHS that there are considerable savings and improvements that could be made to cut costs that should be far higher up the list than NICE’s, in my opinion, irresponsible new attack on cancer patients!

Cancer drugs fund cuts 23 treatments

  • 4 September 2015
CANCER DRUGS 01
Image copyright
Thinkstock

The Cancer Drugs Fund in England will no longer pay for 16 medicines, used in 23 separate cancer treatments.

It has now more than halved the number of treatments it covers since the beginning of the year after being repeatedly overspent.

The latest drugs being axed include those for breast, pancreatic and blood cancers.

The Rarer Cancers Foundation said the news was a “hammer blow” and estimated that 5,500 patients would miss out.

All the drugs on the Cancer Drugs Fund list have been rejected by the NHS as a whole because they do not provide enough benefit for the amount they cost.

The fund was set up by Prime Minister David Cameron to provide access to such medication.

However, NHS England announced that the fund was due to go £100m over budget in 2014-15.

At the beginning of 2015, there were 84 funded therapies, but after a series of culls there are now just 41.

In the latest reduction, 23 course of treatment have been removed.

Prof Peter Clark, the chairman of the Fund, said: “There is no escaping the fact that we face a difficult set of choices, but it is our duty to ensure we get maximum value from every penny available on behalf of patients.

“We must ensure we invest in those treatments that offer the most benefit, based on rigorous evidence-based clinical analysis and an assessment of the cost of those treatments.”

NHS England said current projections suggest that without de-listing, spend on the fund would rise to around £410m this year.

The drugs will be formally removed on 4 November and the announcement will not affect patients currently receiving treatment through the fund.


Patients affected

  • Blood cancer – 1,759 patients
  • Breast cancer – 986 patients
  • Bowel cancer – 845 patients
  • Prostate cancer – 601 patients
  • Upper gastrointestinal cancer – 549 patients
  • Urological cancer – 376 patients
  • Brain and central nervous system – 229 patients
  • Gynaecological cancer – 188 patients

Source: Rarer Cancers Foundation figures bases on usage figures for 2014-15


Andrew Wilson, chief executive of the Rarer Cancers Foundation which is supported by pharmaceutical companies, said: “These cuts will be a hammer blow to many thousands of desperately ill cancer patients and their families.

“Ministers told us they wanted to work with charities to develop a solution, but now the NHS has announced big reductions in access to existing life-extending treatment, with no action to make available the newest game-changing drugs.”

The charity Breast Cancer Now said it was a “dreadful day” for patients.

Its chief executive, Baroness Delyth Morgan, said there had been a lack of leadership: “Kadcyla is a one-of-a-kind drug proven to extend life, and the fact is that because government, the NHS and the pharmaceutical industry have failed to agree realistic prices for new drugs, some women will die sooner.”

The chief executive of Myeloma UK, Eric Low, said: “The government has been far too slow to see and address the critical flaws of the Fund.

“It has let things develop to the stage where effective and life-prolonging drugs are being brutally delisted from the Fund to cut costs.”

To view the original of this article CLICK HERE

.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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Early-Stage Breast Condition – May Not Require Cancer Treatment!

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Early-Stage Breast Condition
May Not Require Cancer Treatment

By GINA KOLATAAUG. 20, 2015

Therese Taylor of Mississauga, Ontario, had a mastectomy four years ago
after a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ.
She now believes it was unnecessary.
Credit Michelle Siu for The New York Times

As many as 60,000 American women each year are told they have a very early stage of breast cancer — Stage 0, as it is commonly known — a possible precursor to what could be a deadly tumor. And almost every one of the women has either a lumpectomy or a mastectomy, and often a double mastectomy, removing a healthy breast as well.

Yet it now appears that treatment may make no difference in their outcomes. Patients with this condition had close to the same likelihood of dying of breast cancer as women in the general population, and the few who died did so despite treatment, not for lack of it, researchers reported Thursday in JAMA Oncology.

Picture Your Life: Faces of Breast Cancer
A radiologist uses a magnifying glass to check mammograms for breast cancer.
Well: Scientists Seek to Rein In Diagnoses of Cancer JULY 29, 2013
Essay: Cancer by Any Other Name Would Not Be as Terrifying NOV. 21, 2011
A year after Monica Long’s partial mastectomy, a pathologist determined that she never had cancer.
Prone to Error: Earliest Steps to Find Cancer JULY 19, 2010

Their conclusions were based on the most extensive collection of data ever analyzed on the condition, known as ductal carcinoma in situ, or D.C.I.S.: 100,000 women followed for 20 years. The findings are likely to fan debate about whether tens of thousands of patients are undergoing unnecessary and sometimes disfiguring treatments for premalignant conditions that are unlikely to develop into life-threatening cancers.

We asked our readers to share insights from their experiences with breast cancer. Here are some of their stories.

Diagnoses of D.C.I.S., involving abnormal cells confined to the milk ducts of the breast, have soared in recent decades. They now account for as much as a quarter of cancer diagnoses made with mammography, as radiologists find smaller and smaller lesions. But the new data on outcomes raises provocative questions: Is D.C.I.S. cancer, a precursor to the disease or just a risk factor for some women? Is there any reason for most patients with the diagnosis to receive brutal therapies? If treatment does not make a difference, should women even be told they have the condition?

Dr. Otis W. Brawley, chief medical officer at the American Cancer Society, said he was not ready to abandon treatment until a large clinical trial is done that randomly assigns women to receive mastectomies, lumpectomies or no treatment for D.C.I.S., and that shows treatment is unnecessary for most patients. But Dr. Brawley, who was not involved in the study, also said he had no doubt that treatment had been excessive.

“In medicine, we have a tendency to get too enthusiastic about a technique and overuse it,” Dr. Brawley said. “This has happened with the treatment of D.C.I.S.”

A majority of the 100,000 patients in the database the researchers used, from a national cancer registry, had lumpectomies, and nearly all the rest had mastectomies, the new study found. Their chance of dying of breast cancer in the two decades after treatment was 3.3 percent, no matter which procedure they had, about the same as an average woman’s chance of dying of breast cancer, said Dr. Laura J. Esserman, a breast cancer surgeon and researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who wrote an editorial accompanying the study.

The data showed that some patients were at higher risk: those younger than 40, black women, and those whose abnormal cells had molecular markers found in advanced cancers with poorer prognoses.

D.C.I.S. has long been regarded as a precursor to potentially deadly invasive cancers, analogous to colon polyps that can turn into colon cancer, said Dr. Steven A. Narod, the lead author of the paper and a researcher at Women’s College Research Institute in Toronto. The treatment strategy has been to get rid of the tiny specks of abnormal breast cells, just as doctors get rid of colon polyps when they see them in a colonoscopy.

But if that understanding of the condition had played out as expected, women who had an entire breast removed, or even both breasts as a sort of double precaution, should have been protected from invasive breast cancer. Instead, the findings showed, they had the same risk as those who had a lumpectomy. Almost no women went untreated, so it is not clear if as a group, they did worse.

But some women who died of breast cancer ended up with the disease throughout their body without ever having it recur in their breast — many, in fact, had no breast because they had had a mastectomy. Those very rare fatal cases of D.C.I.S. followed by fatal breast cancer, Dr. Narod concluded, had most likely already spread at the time of detection. As for the rest, he said, they were never going to spread anyway.

Dr. Esserman said that if deadly breast cancers started out as D.C.I.S., the incidence of invasive breast cancers should have plummeted with rising detection rates. That has not happened, even though in the pre-mammography era, before about 1980, the number of women found to have D.C.I.S. was only in the hundreds. Nearly 240,000 women receive diagnoses of invasive breast cancer each year.

Those facts lead Dr. Narod to a blunt view. After a surgeon has removed the aberrant cells for the biopsy, he said, “I think the best way to treat D.C.I.S. is to do nothing.”

Others drew back from that advice.

Dr. Monica Morrow, chief breast cancer surgeon at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, said it made more sense to view D.C.I.S. as a cancer precursor that should be treated the way it is now, with a lumpectomy or mastectomy. She questioned whether those women who were treated and ended up dying of breast cancer anyway had been misdiagnosed.

In some cases, pathologists look at only a small amount of tumor, Dr. Morrow said, and could have missed areas of invasive cancer. Even the best mastectomy leaves cells behind, she added, which could explain why a small number of women with D.C.I.S. who had mastectomies, even double mastectomies, died of breast cancer.

USPSTF data pointed to this lack of efficacy a YEAR AGO! And the published their findings and the media yawned, and the women’s groups…
Barry 7 minutes ago

A representative of the American Association of Cancer Surgeons responded, “But … But … But, how are we going to make our mortgage…
transposition 8 minutes ago

This finding is consistent with the growing body of evidence that our approach to breast cancer has been too aggressive, particularly when…

Dr. Brawley said the new study, by showing which D.C.I.S. patients were at highest risk, would help enormously in defining who might benefit from treatment. It could not show that the high-risk women — young, black or with tumors with ominous molecular markers — were helped by treatment because there were too few of them, and pretty much every one of them was treated. But Dr. Brawley said he would like to see clinical trials that addressed that question, as well as whether the rest of the women with D.C.I.S., 80 percent of them, would be fine without treatment or with anti-estrogen drugs like tamoxifen or raloxifene that can reduce overall breast cancer risk.

The notion that most women with D.C.I.S. might not need mastectomies or lumpectomies can be agonizing for those, like Therese Taylor of Mississauga, Ontario, who have already gone through such treatment. Four years ago, when she was 51, a doctor sent her for a mammogram, telling her he felt a lump in her right breast. That breast was fine, but it turned out she had D.C.I.S. in her left breast. A surgeon, she said, told her that “it was consistent with cancer” and that she should have a mastectomy.

“I went into a state of shock and fear,” Ms. Taylor said. She had the surgery.She regrets it. “It takes away your feeling of attractiveness,” she said. “Compared to women who really have cancer, it is nothing. But the mastectomy was for no reason, and that’s why it bothers me.”

But if D.C.I.S. is actually a risk factor for invasive cancer, rather than a precursor, it might be possible to help women reduce their risk, perhaps with hormonal or immunological therapies to change the breast environment, making it less hospitable to cancer cells, Dr. Esserman said.

“As we learn more, that gives us the courage to try something different,” she said.

The stakes in this debate are high. Karuna Jaggar, executive director of Breast Cancer Action, an education and activist organization, said women tended not to appreciate the harms of overtreatment and often overestimated their risk of dying of cancer, making them react with terror.

“Treatment comes with short- and long-term impacts,” Ms. Jaggar said, noting that women who get cancer treatment are less likely to be employed several years later and tend to earn less than before. There are emotional tolls and strains on relationships. And there can be complications from breast cancer surgery, including lymphedema, a permanent pooling of lymphatic fluid in the arm.

“These are not theoretical harms,” Ms. Jaggar said.

To view the original article CLICK HERE
.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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BCG Treatment for Bladder Cancer

BCG Treatment for Bladder Cancer
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Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy for Cancer

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy for Cancer
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Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy

Tumor-targeting T-cell therapies are generating remarkable remissions in hard-to-beat cancers—and attracting millions of dollars of investment along the way.

By Vicki Brower | April 1, 2015

 
BUILDING A BETTER T-CELL: By modifying T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognize cancer-specific antigens, researchers can prime the cells to recognize and kill tumor cells that would otherwise escape immune detection. The process involves extracting a patient’s T cells, transfecting them with a gene for a CAR, then reinfusing the transfected cells into the patient.© LUCY READING-IKKANDALast December, scientists at Juno Therapeutics reported at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) meeting that, in an ongoing Phase 1 trial, its chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, JCAR015, put 24 of 27 adults with refractive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) into remission, with six patients remaining disease free for more than a year (ASH 2014, Abstract 382, 2014). This disease is extremely hard to treat and progresses rapidly when it becomes refractory; most patients die within a few months. “This response rate is unprecedented for patients who had stopped responding to all other treatments,” says Michel Sadelain, a founding director of Memorial Sloan Kettering’s Center for Cell Engineering and a cofounder of Juno.
Founded just a year earlier, the Seattle-based company now has four CD19-targeting CAR T-cell therapies in trials. The premise is simple: extract a patient’s T cells from blood and train them to recognize and kill cancer by modifying them with a viral vector to express an artificial, or chimeric, receptor specific for a particular cancer-associated antigen—in this case, CD19, an antigen expressed in  B-cell–related  blood cancers—then reinfuse the cells back into the patient. (See illustration at left.) The engineered cells recognize and kill cancerous cells, while reactivating other immune players that have been dampened by cancer’s inhibitory signals. “CAR therapy is at the same time cell therapy, gene therapy, and immunotherapy,” says Sadelain. “It represents a radical departure from all forms of medicine in existence until now.” Promising preclinical results have moved Juno’s CD19 therapies into trials for ALL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and the company has three more CAR T-cell immunotherapies for a number of solid cancers close behind.

A few weeks after the ASH meeting, Juno went public for a whopping $264.6 million, the largest biotech initial public offering (IPO) of 2014. Within a month, the company’s valuation rose from $2 billion to $4.7 billion, the largest among biotechs in a decade. By the end of 2016, the company plans to have 10 drug trials for six diseases up and running using CAR T cells produced in a brand-new manufacturing facility.

And Juno is not alone. This relatively new sector is experiencing a frenzy of scientific activity, corporate partnering, and financing that took off in late 2013, continued throughout 2014, and moved straight into the new year with no sign of letting up. By now, most major pharmaceutical companies have jumped into the CAR T-cell arena. In the past two years alone, at least half a dozen companies have made deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars up front, with much more expected in the future as products move through the pipeline. (See chart below.) This influx of funding is now supporting dozens of clinical trials.

While most of these studies are currently aimed at late-stage disease for which other therapeutic options have failed, researchers in the field anticipate that these immunotherapies could replace standard cancer treatments in the future. “While we are evaluating these therapies in advanced cancer now, we absolutely believe that they have the potential to become frontline therapies,” Sadelain says.

Long time coming

CAR T-cell therapy has had a lengthy run-up to what may appear to be overnight success. The first CAR T cells were developed at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel in the late 1980s by chemist and immunologist Zelig Eshhar. In 1990, Eshhar took a year-long sabbatical to join Steven Rosenberg at the National Institutes of Health, where they prepared CARs that targeted human melanoma. “We designed CAR T cells to overcome a number of problems in getting T cells to attack cancer,” says Eshhar. These problems included a tumor’s ability to escape immune recognition by silencing the major histocompatibility complex molecules and the generally immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.


NEW AND IMPROVED CARs: Zelig Eshhar and Steven Rosenberg constructed the first CAR T cells using a modular design, including a specific cancer-targeting antibody outside the cell, a transmembrane component, and an intracellular costimulatory signaling domain that amplifies the activation of the CAR T cells. Second- and third-generation CAR T-cell technologies have added additional costimulatory domains within the cells, as well as additional receptors to improve targeting of the T-cell attack and minimize side effects.
© LUCY READING-IKKANDA

Eshhar and Rosenberg constructed the CAR T cells with a modular design that included a specific cancer-targeting antibody, and later added a costimulatory signaling domain that amplifies the activation of the cells, giving them a stronger signal to multiply and kill cancer cells. Since that early work, researchers in both academia and industry have developed and tweaked each section of the modular design. (See illustration above.) “Ultimately, we needed 20 years to learn how to supercharge these cells to deliver anticancer activity,” says Arie Belldegrun, president and CEO of Kite Pharma in Santa Monica, California, which is assessing CAR T cells in six trials for B cell leukemia and lymphomas, and glioblastoma. Eshhar, a member of Kite Pharma’s scientific advisory board, continues to collaborate with Rosenberg, who serves as a special advisor to the company.

Juno is now working on two second-generation CAR technologies that incorporate mechanisms to further amplify T-cell activation or to dampen it, in the case of adverse reactions. (See “Safety concerns.”) These so-called “armored” chimeric antigen receptors are designed to combat the inhibitory tumor microenvironment by incorporating a signaling protein such as IL-12, which stimulates T-cell activation and recruitment. Juno believes “armored CAR” technology will be especially useful for solid tumors, whose microenvironment and potent immunosuppressive mechanisms can make raising antitumor responses more challenging.

Like Juno, Houston, Texas–based Bellicum Pharmaceuticals is working on refinements for next-generation CAR T-cell treatments. To better control antigen activation by its CAR T cells, for example, Bellicum is separating its dual costimulatory domain from the antigen-recognition domain, moving it onto a separate molecular switch that can be controlled by the small-molecule drug rimiducid. These T cells, known as GoCAR-Ts, can only be fully activated when they are exposed to both cancer cells and the drug.

In addition to altering the components of the CAR T cells themselves, researchers are also experimenting with different methods to introduce the receptors into the patients’ cells. At MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Laurence Cooper and his colleagues are using a nonviral system called “Sleeping Beauty,” licensed from the University of Minnesota’s Perry Hackett, that relies on a transposon derived from fish to paste any desired gene into the genome. “This system employs electroporation [an electric current] to introduce elements of the Sleeping Beauty system into T cells,” says Cooper, who hopes the system will be less complex and cheaper to use than viral vectors.

While CAR T cells are being tested first as monotherapies, researchers are also giving thought to how best to use CAR T cells with other immunotherapies in the future. “We are excited about combining checkpoint inhibitors such as PD-1 [programmed death-1] inhibitors and anti-CTLA4 [anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4] drugs with CAR T cells,” Eshhar says.

A frenzy of deal making

Over the past few years, the industry has been a hive of activity, with a half dozen companies forging deals valued at more than a half billion dollars in total. In addition to the perceived financial potential of these therapies, the feeding frenzy may in part be attributable to the fact that regulatory authorities are giving CAR T-cell treatments priority review for filling unmet medical needs. Many of these therapies are receiving orphan or breakthrough status from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), bringing expedited regulatory review, which translates into earlier realization of financial benefits from more rapid market entry. In November 2014, for example, the FDA granted orphan status to Juno’s JCAR015. Kite’s KTE-C19 for refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma also recently received the designation from both the FDA and the European Medicines Agency. And the University of Pennsylvania /Novartis’s CTL019 for ALL received breakthrough status last July.

CAR T-CELL DEALS

Institution/Company Date Partner Terms
University of Pennsylvania August 2012 Novartis Undisclosed
Celgene March 2013 Bluebird Bio, Baylor College of Medicine Unspecified upfront payment plus up to $225 million per product in option fees and milestone payments
Cellectis June 2014 Pfizer $80 million upfront plus up to $185 million per product and royalties
Cellectis January 2015 Ohio State University Undisclosed
Kite Pharma January 2015 Amgen $60 million upfront and up to $525 million per product in milestone payments, plus royalties on sales and IP licensing
Md Anderson January 2015 Ziopharm, Intrexon $100 million in stock and $15–20 million/year for 3 years

A new report by EP Vantage, the editorial team at life science market intelligence firm Evaluate Ltd, notes that while investor enthusiasm for this sector is unlikely to diminish anytime soon, “there may be hidden dangers” for those in it to make a big return. “CAR T therapy looks like it’s becoming little short of a revolution in the treatment of some cancer types, but numerous risks are being lost in the hype,” writes report author Jacob Plieth, a biochemist by training. “It is important to appreciate the risks as well as the opportunities to have a clear understanding of the market potential of these therapies and their developers.”

Clinical results spark hope

In 2011, the Penn group described the results of an early trial of its CTL019 CAR T-cell treatment in three advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients (Sci Transl Med, 3:95ra73, 2011). The findings—including two patients who have now remained in remission 4.5 years after their treatment—served as an early demonstration that CAR T cells can successfully treat patients with late-stage disease. The team has now tested CAR T-cell therapies in about 125 people, with six different trials underway for pediatric and adult ALL, CLL, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Other CAR T-cell therapies are in trials for solid tumors, including ovarian, breast, and pancreatic cancers, and mesothelioma and glioblastoma.

CAR T-CELL BIOTECH IPOs

Company Date Value
Kite Pharma June 2014 $134.1 million
Bellicum December 2014 $160 million
Juno December 2014 $264.6 million
Cellectis March 2015 $228 million

“One of the exciting things about these cells is that they expand to high numbers and maintain long-term functional persistence,” says David Porter, a leukemia specialist and director of blood and marrow transplantation at Penn.

In a recent Penn study of 30 children and adults with relapsed or refractory ALL who received CTL019, 90 percent achieved total remission, and 78 percent were still living at the end of the study two years later (NEJM, 371:1507-17, 2014). Moreover, “very few patients—three—got a bone marrow transplant after CTL019, suggesting that this could be a replacement for bone marrow transplant and not just a bridge to transplant,” added senior author Stephan Grupp, director of translational research for the Center for Childhood Cancer Research at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

At ASH, Grupp discussed a follow-up study, including 39 pediatric patients, which showed a 92 percent complete remission rate following CTL019 treatment. Of those, 76 percent remain in complete remission after six months (ASH 2014, Abstract 380, 2014). “The first ALL patient treated is still in remission nearly three years later,” says Grupp. In September, Novartis pledged $20 million to build a Center for Advanced Cellular Therapeutics to manufacture CAR T cells on the Penn campus, to be completed next year. Penn is now conducting pilot trials aimed at solid tumors, including mesothelioma; ovarian, breast, and pancreatic cancers; and glioblastoma.

A team at the National Cancer Institute, including Rosenberg, has also reported successes with CAR T cell therapy, focusing on patients with refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, an aggressive disease for which survival without treatment is measured in months. Following treatment with CD19-targeting T cells, 22 of 27 patients had either complete or partial remissions; 10 have remained cancer free for up to 37 months (ASH 2014, Abstract 550, 2014). These and other trials have demonstrated that CAR T-cell therapies can successfully treat leukemias and lymphomas in some patients for whom there are no other treatments.

There are currently many other CAR T-cell trials underway in leukemia and lymphoma, and more beginning in the near future. Scientists in this arena are energized by these and other results, and many see CAR T-cell therapies as the future of cancer treatment. “I believe these trials indicate that chemotherapy may be on its way out,” says MD Anderson’s Cooper.

Vicki Brower is a freelance science writer living in New York City.

SAFETY CONCERNS
Despite the growing number and length of remissions using CAR T-cell therapy to treat leukemias and lymphomas, key challenges remain—first and foremost, safety. There have been a half-dozen treatment-related deaths in the University of Pennsylvania and Juno trials in the past few years that involve a major side-effect of CAR T-cell therapy called cytokine-release syndrome (CRS). T-cell activation causes the release of inflammatory cytokines, producing symptoms including high fevers, aches, hypotension, and, more rarely, pulmonary edema and neurologic effects such as delirium.

Researchers tie the severity of what they call a “cytokine storm” to tumor burden—a patient’s total mass of cancer tissue or quantity of malignant cells. One hypothesis for this is that higher tumor burden seems to incite a stronger immune reaction. Moreover, the deaths have all occurred in adults, some of whom had serious underlying medical issues, and others who had undiagnosed infections. Interestingly, children seem relatively resistant to severe CRS and, when they get it, are more easily managed, says Michel Sadelain of Memorial Sloan Kettering and Juno. “Adults do not tolerate the treatment as well as children, in whom the cells differ in speed of action and persistence,” Sadelain says. Treatment with an anti-IL6 antibody, or in severe cases, corticosteroids, can mitigate a cytokine storm’s severity, as can dosing with lower numbers of CAR T cells.

“In our trial [on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma], we saw that toxicity was reduced in patients who received low-dose chemotherapy rather than high-dose [prior to CAR T-cell treatment], and lower numbers of engineered T cells [than given previously],” says James Kochenderfer of the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

Bellicum is partnering with the University of Leiden in the Netherlands and the NCI, among others, to develop “suicide switches,” or safety on-and-off switches that are incorporated into CAR T-cell candidates to control T-cell activation and proliferation. And Juno’s second-generation “armored” CAR technologies include mechanisms to dampen T-cell activation. “It will be important to find new ways to overcome toxicity of CAR T cells,” says the Weizmann Institute’s Zelig Eshhar.

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