Life's Roller Coaster

If I'm missing, or not taking messages sorry – I'm more angry about letting my friends down than YOU will ever be at being let down! Unfortunately that is sometimes a side effect of Cancer! Mea Culpa: may I blame being short fused & grumpy on it too! My first symptoms presented in Nov-1998 – Follow The Trail on >DIARY of CANCER< Immediately Below!

How to Check if You Have a Lump on Your Breast …

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How to Check if You Have a Lump on Your Breast …
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Greg Lance – Watkins
Greg_L-W

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Hi,

minded that a friend in her 50s had a Radical Mastectomy last week, having chosen to have a Lumpectomy &sSeveral Scrapes previously to avoid a Mastectomy we can but hope the delay she brought on herself does not prove fatal!

BREAST RECONSTRUCTION 02

That another friend is sheduled to have some 12″ of bowel, the Ascending Colon, removed to remove several sites of early stage cancer later today, and will be returning sometime later to have various less ominous polyps removed from the Colon – he can with some justification be more optimistic having discovered the problem early from the national bi-annual bowel screening & a resultant Colonoscopy.

COLON 01

Also another friend just 50, 10 days ago had her Ovaries and part of her Fallopian Tubes + her Uterus removed, due to pre-cancerous Cysts

ovarian-cancer-01

There’s a lot of it about!

Looking out for the symptoms & not just detecting it early but dealing with it as soon as possible, prefferably in its early stages, offers the best chances of survival!

How to Check if You Have a Lump on Your Breast

Follow this step-by-step guide to perform a breast self-examination.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer among women, and every year the number of deaths from it increases.

So what’s a gal to do? The best bet is to learn how to perform a breast self-exam accurately and trust your instincts if you think something isn’t right. The self-exam may identify an undetected lump, while a screening can highlight previously undetected issues.

Research on the best way to detect breast cancer early varies. But the low-tech breast self-exam, if performed accurately, can aid in the detection of breast cancer, as do routine mammograms.

Breast self-exam steps

Doctors recommend performing a monthly breast self-exam about five days after your period starts so that your breasts won’t be tender.

click image to view larger

1. Take a good look.

Standing in front of the mirror, scan your breasts for any changes in size, color or shape. Hold your arms by your side, then raise them up and do the same scan.

Make an appointment with your doctor if you notice any of the following:
• Rash or swelling
• Bloody discharge coming from the nipples
• Odd dimples, puckering or bulging underneath the skin
• A nipple that has changed position or become retracted
• Lump or a hard nodule
• Veins on one breast that are larger than the other

2. Do a touch test lying down.

Lying down, use your right hand to examine your left breast. Your breast should be as flat as possible on your chest.

Keeping the pads of your fingers together and flat, move in a circular motion in small intervals around the breast, working from top to bottom and from side to side.

Your self-exam should cover the area from your collarbone to the top of your sternum and from your armpit to the middle of your chest. Be intentional and work slowly so that you check the entire breast.

Vary the pressure so that you feel through the various layers of tissue. Use light pressure for the outer layer of tissue, medium pressure for the middle layer and firm pressure to feel the deep tissue.

Then repeat the entire process, using your left hand on your right breast.

3. Do a touch test standing up.

Using the same technique, examine both of your breasts while standing. Some women find this step easier to do in the shower when the skin is wet and easier to manipulate.

It should go without saying that if you find a lump during your self-test, tell your doctor. But don’t panic — a mammogram should tell you more.

“The most important piece of advice for women is to get your screening mammograms,” said Maria Nelson, MD, assistant professor of clinical surgery at Keck School of Medicine of USC and a breast surgeon at the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center of Keck Medicine of USC.

If you or your doctor suspects that you have symptoms of breast cancer, a biopsy will be performed to determine whether there is a malignancy and what further action should be taken.

To view the original article CLICK HERE

By Heidi Tyline King

As one of the eight original National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer centers in the United States, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center at Keck Medicine of USC is one of the preeminent academic medical institutions in the country. If you are in the Los Angeles area, make an appointment by calling (800) USC-CARE (800-872-2273) or visiting Cancer.KeckMedicine.org/request-an-appointment.

 

.
Regards,
     Greg_L-W
Greg Lance-Watkins
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving my wife Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.

If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings. . Later in the sequence of my experiences with cancer you will note that I introduce some results and events most probably linked with cancer such as enlarged & damaged Prostate and a consequential Heart Attack leaving me with no right coronary artery! . I have also included numerous articles and anecdotes regarding health – primarily related to cancer, prostate and heart conditions – FYI! . Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar. . You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help you in ANY way. .

Regards,
Greg_L-W.

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Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins
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A Grim Breast Cancer Milestone for Black Women

Posted by: Greg Lance – Watkins
(Greg_L-W)

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A Grim Breast Cancer Milestone for Black Women
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving my wife Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.

Hi,

.

A Grim Breast Cancer Milestone
for Black Women

By TARA PARKER-POPE OCTOBER 29, 2015 10:00 AM October 29, 2015 10:00 am 20 Comments
Debrah Reid, 59, center, in 2013, relaxed with her sister, Audrey Anderson, left, and friend Travia Davis, at her home in Memphis. Ms. Reid was given a breast cancer diagnosis in 2013 and was featured in an article on racial disparities in breast cancer that year. Ms. Reid died in May 2015 from the disease.
Debrah Reid, 59, center, in 2013, relaxed with her sister, Audrey Anderson, left, and friend Travia Davis, at her home in Memphis. Ms. Reid was given a breast cancer diagnosis in 2013 and was featured in an article on racial disparities in breast cancer that year. Ms. Reid died in May 2015 from the disease.
Credit Ruth Fremson/The New York Times

African-American women in the United States have reached a dubious milestone. For the first time, the incidence of breast cancer among black women is equal to that of white women, according to a sweeping new report from the American Cancer Society.

The finding is worrisome because breast cancer has historically been more deadly in black women than in white women, but at least it has not been as common. Now, as incidence rates equalize, the data suggest that breast cancer will continue to exact a far greater toll on black women, and that the trend shows no sign of abating.

“It’s been known that white women are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, but black women are more likely to die from it,” said Carol E. DeSantis, senior epidemiologist at the American Cancer Society and the lead author of the report. “Now what happens? Now the incidence rates are similar, and black women are still more likely to die from it. Our conclusion is that the widening mortality disparity is likely to continue, especially now in light of the increasing incidence.”

The data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute, a program that has been collecting information on cancer patients since 1973.

Among white women breast cancer incidence rates have been stable since 2004, hovering around 135 per 100,000 women. But among black women, rates have been consistently lower, ranging from 119 to 125 per 100,000. But in 2012, a startling change occurred. The incidence rate moved to 135 cases per 100,000 women for both white and black women.

“The lines have crossed for the first time,” Ms. DeSantis said. “There is variation in year-to-year rates, especially in smaller populations such as in black women, but I think, overall, the picture we’ve seen is this slow steady increase in black women and stable rates in white women.”

While it’s possible that a fraction of the rise could be attributed to earlier detection, that would not fully explain the trend because rates at which women are being screened for breast cancer have remained stable. As a result, the trends suggest that the uptick in incidence is not a result of doctors simply finding more cases of breast cancer, but is probably the result of other factors.

“To me the bottom line of these statistics is the evidence that the health disparity between African-American and white women in the U.S. is still going strong,” said Kirsten Moysich, a professor of oncology at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, N.Y. “And it’s even more pronounced than previously reported.”

Researchers say the reasons behind the increase are likely to be complex, but rising obesity rates among African-American women may explain some of it. Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancers, and much of the increase in breast cancers among black women has been due largely to more cases of this type of tumor. The obesity rate in black women was 58 percent during the 2009 to 2012 period, up from 39 percent from 1999 to 2002. Meanwhile, the obesity rate among white women has stabilized at around 33 percent.

Researchers also believe that changes in reproductive patterns may play a role, as more African-American women delay childbirth and have fewer children. Both are recognized risk factors for breast cancer.

Over all, the report painted a grim picture of the state of breast cancer in African-American women, showing that advances in diagnosis and treatment that have dramatically improved survival rates from breast cancer and saved countless lives have largely bypassed African-American women. By virtually every measure of the disease — age of diagnosis, age of death, stage of diagnosis — black women are at a significant disadvantage compared with white women, the data show.

Black women are given breast cancer diagnoses at younger ages and die from the disease at younger ages than white women, suggesting that the disease may exact a greater economic and family toll on the black community by stealing more of a woman’s most productive years. The median age at diagnosis is 58 for black women and 62 for white women. The median age for breast cancer death is 62 for black women and 68 for white women.

Black women also are less likely than white women are to be given a diagnosis of early stage disease, and more likely to be given a diagnosis with later stage, and less treatable, tumors, according to the report.

Compared with white women, black women were more likely to be found to have an aggressive form of the disease called triple negative breast cancer, which has a poorer prognosis, in part, because there are not targeted therapies to treat it. Triple negative breast cancers account for 22 percent of the cases among black women, and 11 percent among white women.

Black women also lag behind white women in diagnosis of estrogen-receptor positive disease, the most treatable form of breast cancer. Among white women, 76 percent of cancers diagnosed are ER positive, compared with 62 percent in black women.

Over all, a black woman given a breast cancer diagnosis is 42 percent more likely to die from the disease than a white woman with breast cancer. An analysis of breast cancer mortality trends in 41 of the largest cities in the United States, published last year in Cancer Epidemiology, found that in some cities the risk is even greater. In Los Angeles, a black woman with breast cancer is about 70 percent more likely to die from the disease than a white woman is. In Memphis, black women face more than double the risk.

Researchers say the racial divide in breast cancer mortality may be due to a combination of factors, including disparities in the quality of care available to black women, who may have less access to quality screening and treatment, compared to white women. Lower rates of follow-up after a mammogram, cultural distrust of doctors, and lack of insurance coverage among black women may also play a role.

Dr. Moysich said she hopes the data will galvanize the African-American community and the medical community in general to push for more research.

“There are a lot of people really trying to figure this out on an epidemiological basis and molecular basis and behavioral basis, but we haven’t put our finger on it,’’ she said. “There are lots of partial explanations, and this is a question a lot of people are working on, but it still confuses us.”

To view the original of this article CLICK HERE

TIMES DOCUMENTARIES By Stephen Maing 11:51
The Cancer Divide: Mary
Video: http://vp.nyt.com/video/2013/12/22/25112_1_breast-cancer-memphis_wg_720p.mp4
The Cancer Divide: Mary
Mary Singleton, 57, learned in July that she had Stage 4 breast cancer. After the diagnosis her son, George, moved home to Memphis to help take care of her and to help run her printing business. By Stephen Maing on Publish Date December 20, 2013.

.

Regards,
     Greg_L-W
Greg Lance-Watkins

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Later in the sequence of my experiences with cancer you will note that I introduce some results and events most probably linked with cancer such as enlarged & damaged Prostate and a consequential Heart Attack leaving me with no right coronary artery!
.
I have also included numerous articles and anecdotes regarding health – primarily related to cancer, prostate and heart conditions – FYI!
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help you in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337

of: Stroat, Gloucestershire, UK http://stroat-gloucestershire.com
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IN MEMORIAM – Rebekah Gibbs – Actress & Mum aged 41

IN MEMORIAM – Rebekah Gibbs – Actress & Mum aged 41
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Tragedy as Casualty star Rebekah Gibbs, 41, passes away after six-year battle with breast cancer

  • The actress appeared in the BBC show for more than 100 episodes
  • She was first diagnosed in 2008 when her daughter was just 10 weeks old 
  • Her friend Michelle Grant has spoken of her strength and kindness 
  • Cancer was in remission but she had a seizure while on holiday in Devon
  • It emerged the former Broadway star had tumours in brain and lung

The best friend of Rebekah Gibbs has spoken of the Casualty actor’s incredible bravery as she struggled against breast cancer. 

The 41-year-old mother-of-one, who appeared in more than 100 episodes of the BBC show as paramedic Nina Farr, died from the disease on Tuesday after a six-year battle. 

Michelle Grant, 41, says she was devoted to Gigi, who was just 10 week old when her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2008.

Rebekah Gibbs, pictured with her daughter Gigi, has died after a six-year battle with breast cancer

 

Rebekah Gibbs, pictured left with her daughter Gigi, has died after a six-year battle with breast cancer. Her best friend Michelle (pictured with Rebekah, right) has spoken of the Casualty actor’s incredible bravery

Michelle (left) and Rebekah (centre left) met in a stage production of Grease in 1999, playing Frenchie and Rizzo alongside Matt Goss as Danny (centre right)

Michelle (left) and Rebekah (centre left) met in a stage production of Grease in 1999, playing Frenchie and Rizzo alongside Matt Goss as Danny (centre right)

Michelle first met Rebekah while they were performing in a stage production of Grease in 1999. The pair, playing Frenchie and Rizzo, quickly became best friends.

Michelle, who runs a production company, told MailOnline: ‘She was the most wonderful person.

‘She never let it get on top of her. She worked as hard as she could to bring up Gigi.

‘When she had radiotherapy there were times she wasn’t allowed to be with the baby and it broke her heart.’ 

After chemotherapy and radiotherapy and a double mastectomy and was given the all-clear after five years in 2013.

But a few months later she had a seizure while on holiday in Devon. She was taken to hospital and was told the cancer had spread to her brain and lungs.

'She never let it get on top of her. She worked as hard as she could to bring up Gigi'

‘She never let it get on top of her. She worked as hard as she could to bring up Gigi’

Happiest day: Michelle and Rebekah at Michelle's wedding. Michelle says the death has left her heartbroken

Happiest day: Michelle and Rebekah at Michelle’s wedding. Michelle says the death has left her heartbroken

She died on Tuesday afternoon in a hospice.

Michelle, herself a mother of a two-year-old girl, spoke of the shock her friends and family felt when the cancer returned.

‘It was just heartbreaking. She had the scan and it had got into her lungs. That was it.

‘The chemo would prolong her life but they had to stop treatment in June because it wasn’t working.’ 

She added ‘She was always thinking of her little girl. Her husband Ash has been her rock and his mum Nonny has constantly cared for Gigi.

‘There are so many people that loved her, everyone she knew loved her. When she spoke to you, it would feel as if you were the only person in her life at that moment.

‘I told her I would be talking to her for eternity. She said that for her last few days she wanted love and stroking and candles in the room. She didn’t like people to cry.’

The 41-year-old appeared in more than 100 episodes of Casualty as paramedic Nina Farr from 2004 to 2006

The 41-year-old appeared in more than 100 episodes of Casualty as paramedic Nina Farr from 2004 to 2006

Rebekah Gibbs and her husband Ashley. He said Rebekah had wonderful support towards the end of her life

Rebekah Gibbs and her husband Ashley. He said Rebekah had wonderful support towards the end of her life

She added: ‘She was loved until the very end. For the last few months she was never left alone.

‘She was quite outrageous and a wonderful person. She was all about high heels and lip gloss and she’d be on the dance floor high kicking.

‘She was a character but a sensitive soul.’ 

Her husband Ashley released a statement, saying: ‘Rebekah had wonderful care and felt loved and safe right up until the end, especially with the outstanding nursing staff at the Hospice in the Weald, who were exceptional.

‘I’d like to thank them and her dear, loving friends, from the bottom of my heart for all the love and support we received over the last year. Without which Rebekah and I would not have been able to cope.

 

Rebekah (left, on her wedding day with Gigi, first noticed a lump at Christmas in 2007, when she was seven and a half months pregnant

‘I’d also like to thank everyone for their kind wishes and messages at this difficult time. My daughter and I take a great deal of comfort from this as we come to terms with life without our Rebekah.’

Rebekah first noticed a lump at Christmas in 2007, when she was seven and a half months pregnant.

Initially she thought it was the baby moving, but was horrified when she realised it was a walnut-sized mass in her left breast. 

Anxious that it might be a tumour, she went first to her GP then a locum doctor. Both of them initially told her that she had a blocked milk duct.  

Speaking to the Mail in 2009, she said: ‘The private consultant I [eventually] saw said he believed it was cancer even before he ran a single test.

‘At that moment it was as though a bomb had exploded inside my world, destroying every certainty.

‘I could barely think.

‘Although Gigi was crying with hunger, the last thing I wanted to do was to get out my breast and start feeding her, knowing there was something alien and poisonous growing in there, but I knew she needed my milk.

‘It was surreal; I was only 35, with a newborn baby. I couldn’t have imagined that something so awful could happen.’

Rebekah had planned to breast-feed for six months. Instead, she was given a drug to dry up her milk supply before surgery to remove the tumour.

‘That was a particularly devastating moment,’ she recalled. ‘Suddenly being a mother wasn’t the priority; the priority was staying alive.’

More blows were to follow: a biopsy showed the cancer was grade three – a very aggressive form – and an examination of her lymph nodes revealed the disease had spread.

The actress with daughter Gigi, aged three months. She was devastated as she couldn't breast feed

The actress with daughter Gigi, aged three months. She was devastated as she couldn’t breast feed

Still smiling, still beautiful: Rebekah during her chemo treatment. After chemotherapy and radiotherapy and a double mastectomy and was given the all-clear after five years in 2013

Still smiling, still beautiful: Rebekah during her chemo treatment. After chemotherapy and radiotherapy and a double mastectomy and was given the all-clear after five years in 2013

So what should have been a time of joy at the arrival of her baby became a daily battle with despair as she and her fiancé, garage owner Ashley Pitman, 47, faced up to the challenges that lay ahead.

The days and weeks were marked out not by Gigi’s precious milestones but hospital appointments and gruelling rounds of chemotherapy. ‘I missed out on so much,’ says Rebekah.

‘When I had my first round of chemo I felt so sick that I couldn’t interact with Gigi – all I could do was come home and take her to bed with me.

Then I realised I would have to hand her over to someone – my mother, Ash’s mother or my neighbour Victoria – because she needed stimulation to grow.

‘On the day I started to lose my hair from the chemo, I was changing her nappy and she reached up and stroked my head. She gave me such strength through the toughest of times.’

Her agent Belfield and Ward tweeted the news of her death: ‘Darling Rebekah Gibbs, a true inspiration and dazzling light, never to be forgotten.’ 

James Redmond, who starred with Gibbs in Casualty tweeted: ‘So sad to hear lovely Rebekah Gibbs has passed away. She lit up every room with her smile and positivity. R.I.P.’

Coronation Street actress Hayley Tamaddon tweeted: ‘My dear friend passed away today. A true star, always smiling and so positive.

By the time Rebekah was finally diagnosed with breast cancer, her daughter Gigi was ten weeks old

By the time Rebekah was finally diagnosed with breast cancer, her daughter Gigi was ten weeks old

James Redmond, who starred with Gibbs in Casualty tweeted: 'So sad to hear lovely Rebekah Gibbs has passed away. She lit up every room with her smile and positivity. R.I.P'

James Redmond, who starred with Gibbs in Casualty tweeted: ‘So sad to hear lovely Rebekah Gibbs has passed away. She lit up every room with her smile and positivity. R.I.P’

 
Rebekah Gibbs stars alongside James Redmond in Casualty (Archive)
 

 

‘So many memories. We will never forget you Becky. Keep twinkling. Wherever you are.’

Born in Torquay, Devon, Rebekah attended the Doreen Bird College of Performing Arts in Sidcup, whose alumni include Spice Girl Mel C.

She appeared in the West End musicals Starlight Express, Grease and Fame before landing the part of Nina Farr, a paramedic, in Casualty in 2004.

She left in 2006 to start a family, and went into healthy living overdrive; she was training for a half-marathon when she found out she was expecting Gigi.

Poignantly, in a book she wrote about her struggle with the disease, Gibbs wrote a moving open letter to Gigi, telling her how much she loves her.

‘The book is part of my preparations for Gigi’s life, with or without me,’ she said.

‘If I can’t be there, all I want is for her and Ash to be happy.

‘But for now, I have to concentrate on how much joy and fun I can cram into our remaining time together, because I have no way of knowing how long I’ve got.’

For information about donations to the hospice that cared for Rebekah, The Hospice in the Weald can be followed on Twitter on: @hospiceweald.

Their website is http://www.hospiceintheweald.org.uk

To read the original article CLICK HERE
.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
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UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
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Look for Cancer, and Find It!

Look for Cancer, and Find It!
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Look for Cancer, and Find It

Keith Negley

Mammography has become a fighting word in recent years, with some researchers questioning its value and others staunchly defending it.

One especially disturbing criticism is that screening mammography may lead to “overtreatment,” in which some women go through grueling therapies — surgery, radiation, chemotherapy — that they do not need. Indeed, some studies estimate that 19 percent or more of women whose breast cancers are found by mammography wind up being overtreated.

DESCRIPTION
Picture Your Life
Faces of Breast Cancer

We asked our readers to share insights from their experiences with breast cancer. Here are some of their stories.

This problem occurs, researchers say, because mammography can “overdiagnose” breast cancer, meaning that some of the tiny cancers it finds would probably never progress or threaten the patient’s life. But they are treated anyway.

So where are these overtreated women? Nobody knows.

They are out there somewhere, studies suggest. But the figures on overtreatment are based on theory and calculations, not on counting the heads of actual patients known to have experienced it. No one can point to a particular woman and say, “Here’s a patient who went through the wringer for nothing.”

Overdiagnosis is not the same as a false positive result, in which a test like a mammogram initially suggests a problem but is proved wrong. False positives are frightening and expensive, but overtreatment is the potential harm of mammography that worries doctors most, according to an article published last week in The Journal of the American Medical Association.

But the authors also say that estimates of how often overdiagnosis and overtreatment occur are among the least reliable and most controversial of all the data on mammography.

In the past, overdiagnosis was thought to apply mainly to ductal carcinoma in situ, or D.C.I.S., a breast growth that may or may not turn cancerous. Now, researchers think that invasive cancers are also being overdiagnosed and overtreated by mammography.

The concept of overtreatment is based on the belief that not all breast cancers are deadly. Some never progress, researchers suspect, and some progress so slowly that the patient will probably die of something else, particularly if she is older or has other health problems.

But mammography can find all of these tumors, even those too small to feel. And doctors and patients rarely watch and wait — once a tumor is found, it is treated, because nobody knows how to tell the dangerous ones from those that could be safely left alone.

“Everyone has an anecdote of a small spot on mammography year after year that was finally biopsied and turned out to be positive — invasive, low grade,” said Dr. Constance Lehman, a radiologist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center and the director of breast imaging at the University of Washington in Seattle.

Where do the numerical estimates of overdiagnosis come from? In several large studies of mammography screening, women judged to have the same risk of breast cancer were picked at random to have the test or to skip it. Early on, more cancers were expected in the mammogram group, because the test can find small tumors.

Over time, the groups should have equalized, because if small tumors in the unscreened group were really life-threatening, they would have grown big enough to be felt or caused other symptoms.

But in several studies, the number of cancers in the unscreened group never caught up with the number in the mammography group. The reason for the difference, researchers assume, is that there must have been women in the unscreened group who had cancers that were never diagnosed and never progressed — and therefore did not need treatment.

The next step is to subtract the number of cancers in the unscreened group from the number in the mammography group. The result is the estimate of how many women in the mammography group were overtreated.

“We don’t know which individual women those were,” said Dr. Lydia E. Pace, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital, an author of the new paper. “All we know is the proportion, and a lot of people would argue that we don’t really know the proportion.”

This kind of calculation was used in a Canadian study of about 90,000 women, published in February in the journal BMJ. The authors found that after 15 years there was a “residual excess” of 106 invasive cancers in the mammography group. The authors attributed that to overdiagnosis, and said that it amounted to 22 percent of the 484 invasive cancers found by mammography. They concluded that for every 424 women who had mammography in the study, one was overdiagnosed.

Other studies have estimated overdiagnosis in different ways, with huge variations in the results, reporting that 5 percent to 50 percent of cancers found on mammograms are overdiagnosed. To make it clear that the numbers are uncertain, some offer ranges: For example, one says that if 10,000 50-year-old women have annual mammograms for 10 years, 30 to 137 women will be overdiagnosed.

It is frightening to consider the prospect that mammography could be leading some down a slippery slope to unneeded surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, with all their risks and side effects. But the numbers on overdiagnosis are all over the map, a shaky foundation on which to base important decisions.

The best hope for resolving the confusion may lie in molecular tests that can tell the difference between dangerous tumors and those unlikely to progress — but those tests are in the future.

A version of this article appears in print on 04/08/2014, on page D6 of the NewYork edition with the headline: Look for Cancer, and Find It.
To view the original article CLICK HERE
.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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Warning Signs of Breast Cancer

 

Warning Signs of Breast Cancer
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Breast Pain or Lump: Is it Cancer?


A sharp pain in your breast, possibly with some tenderness, can be scary. It may have you wondering if it could be something serious.A breast lump is often the thing women — and even men — notice that spurs a visit to their doctors. While early stage breast cancer shows no symptoms, timely detection can turn breast cancer into a survivor’s tale.This slideshow covers signs, symptoms, and types of breast cancer. Click through to learn important information you should know.

Causes of Pain & Tenderness

We often associate pain with something wrong, so when women feel tenderness or pain in their breast they often assume the worst — breast cancer. However, breast pain is rarely the first noticeable symptom of breast cancer. Several other factors can cause the pain.Breast pain — clinically called mastalgia — can also be caused by the following:fluctuation of hormones caused by menstruation
a side effect of some birth control pills
a bra that doesn’t fit
stress

Breast Lumps

A lump in the breast isn’t always cancerous. From hormonal changes in teens to damaged fat tissue, more than 80 percent of all breast lumps are noncancerous for women under the age of 40.Common causes of benign breast lumps include:breast infection
fibrocystic breast disease
fibroadenoma (noncancerous tumor)
fat necrosis (damaged tissue)

With fat necrosis, the mass cannot be distinguished from a cancerous lump without a biopsy. Tests for breast cancer are explained later.

Signs of Breast Cancer

While often caused by less severe conditions, a breast lump, pain, and tenderness are often the things most associated with breast cancer. Other symptoms of breast cancer include:nipple discharge or retraction of the nipple
enlargement of one breast
dimpling of the breast surface
an “orange peel” texture to the skin
vaginal pain
unintentional weight loss
enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit
visible veins on the breast
If you experience any of those symptoms, you should see your doctor. Breast exams are covered on the next page.

Breast Exams

When you visit your doctor with concerns about breast pain, tenderness or a lump, there are common tests he or she will perform:Mammogram: an x-ray of the breast to help tell between a benign and malignant mass
Biopsy: removal of a small amount of breast tissue for testing
Ultrasound: use of ultrasonic sound waves to produce an image of the tissue
MRI: Normally used in conjunction with other tests, magnetic resonance imaging is another noninvasive way to examine breast tissue

Types of Breast Cancer

Two categories reflect the nature of the cancer:Noninvasive (in situ): cancer has not spread from the original tissue (Stage 0)
Invasive (infiltrating): cancer cells have spread to surrounding tissues (Stages I-IV)
The tissue affected determines the type of cancer:Ductal carcinoma: cancer forms in the lining of the milk ducts (most common)
Lobular carcinoma: cancer in the lobules of the breast where milk is produced
Sarcoma: cancer in the breast’s connective tissue (rare)

Genes and Hormones Affect Cancer Growth

Geneticists are starting to learn how genes affect the growth of cancer and have even identified one:HER-2: HER-2 in cancer cells fuels their growth. Medications can help shut the HER-2 gene down.
Like genes, hormones can also speed up the growth of some types of breast cancers that have hormone receptors.Estrogen receptor positive: this cancer uses estrogen to grow
Progesterone receptor positive: this cancer is fueled by progesterone
Hormone receptor negative: doesn’t use hormones as fuel (no hormone receptors)

Treatments

Depending on the type and stage of cancer, treatments can vary. However, there are some common practices doctors and specialists use to combat breast cancer:Mastectomy: surgical removal of part or the whole breast to remove a tumor and connecting tissue
Lumpectomy: removes the tumor while leaving the breast intact
Chemotherapy: the most common cancer treatment, chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to interfere with cells’ ability to reproduce
Radiation: another standard in the fight against cancer, radiation uses X-rays to directly treat cancer
Hormone & Targeted Therapy: used when either genes or hormones play a part in the cancer’s growth

Prognosis

As with any cancer, early detection and treatment is a major factor in determining the outcome. Breast cancer is easily treated and usually curable when detected in the earliest of stages.The American Cancer Society says the five-year survival rate for Stage 0 to Stage II breast cancer is more than 80 percent. Stage III breast cancer five-year survival rate is still more than 50 percent

Staying Ahead of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Whether you’re concerned about breast pain or tenderness, it’s important to stay informed on risk factors and warning signs of breast cancer.The best way to fight breast cancer is early detection, whether that be self-examinations or regular mammograms. If you’re worried that your breast pain or tenderness could be something serious, make an appointment with your doctor today.
Stage 4 Breast Cancer: Possible Complications You Should Know About
Stage 4 Breast Cancer: Possible Complications You Should Know About
CLICK HERE»
Stage 4 Breast Cancer: Understand Your Treatment Options
Stage 4 Breast Cancer: Understand Your Treatment Options
CLICK HERE»
Advanced Breast Cancer: Your Support Options
Advanced Breast Cancer: Your Support Options
CLICK HERE»
This page is compiled with data from http://www.healthline.com
Health line also provided the less factual but anecdotal article:
Breast Cancer
14 Inspiring Breast Cancer Quotes
Written by Rachael Maier
Being diagnosed with breast cancer is a life-changing experience. It can be hard to handle the news at first, and even harder to know how to proceed, no matter your prognosis.
While everyone’s journey is unique, knowing that others before you have been through something similar can give you the strength and inspiration you need to keep everything in perspective.
Click through the slideshow for the type of wisdom gained from great personal struggle, and know that you’re not alone.
Which you may find helpful CLICK HERE
.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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>BREAST CANCER Research Presented 2013

 

>BREAST CANCER Research Presented 2013
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Research Presented at the 2013 Breast Cancer Symposium

Breast Cancer image Cosponsored by the American Society of Breast Disease, the American Society of Breast Surgeons, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the National Consortium of Breast Centers, and the Society of Surgical Oncology

The 2013 Breast Cancer Symposium was held September 7 – 9, 2013, in San Francisco, California.

Radiation Therapy for DCIS Does Not Seem to Increase Cardiovascular Disease Risk
A study conducted in the Netherlands found that, after 10 years, women who had received radiation therapy to treat ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast have no increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the general popu­lation of Dutch women. These results may be helpful to women who are deciding on their treatment plan, and may seem reassuring for DCIS survi­vors treated with radiotherapy.

“Doctors have been worried about late effects of breast radiation therapy, particularly cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggest that routine radiation therapy for women with DCIS does not appear to increase the risk of develop­ing cardiovascular disease later in life. This is especially important in light of the current concerns about over-treating patients diagnosed with DCIS,” says lead study author Naomi B. Boekel, MSC, a PhD student at the Netherlands Cancer Insti­tute in Amsterdam. “However, studies with longer follow-up after breast radia­tion therapy are needed before definitive conclusions about cardiovascular disease risk can be drawn.”

MRI Around the Time of Surgery May Be Unnecessary for Women with DCIS
A large, retrospective study of women who underwent a lumpectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast found that adding an MRI scan to standard mam­mography immediately before or after surgery does not decrease local recur­rence or contralateral breast cancer rates. Some doctors order MRI routinely to look for additional areas of cancer, and others use it to get more information if there is a discrepancy between what is found during the physical exam and what they are seeing on a mammogram or an ultrasound. The findings suggest that MRI does not improve long-term outcomes for most women with DCIS and, therefore, may lead to a decrease in routine use of MRI in this patient population.

“We now have a lot of evidence that indicates that MRI isn’t necessary for every patient with DCIS. Aside from the cost of the test, MRI has a rather high false-positive rate, which may re­sult in additional biopsies and a delay in surgery,” says first study author Melissa L. Pilewskie, MD, a breast surgeon at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, NY. “We need to focus on spending money and time on tests that we know are going to provide benefit.”

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

For more information on these and other studies presented at the 2013 Breast Cancer Symposium, visit Cancer.Net/BreastSymposium.

This article was published in Coping® with Cancer magazine, November/December 2013.

For more details about Breast Cancer
CLICK HERE, or HERE, or Here

.
Regards,
Greg_L-W.
.
 Please Be Sure To
& Link to my My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I’M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!

.
If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998 see The TAB at the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer ….< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order, many linked to specific blog postings.
.
Thoughts, articles and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Left Sidebar.
.
You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help, also many of the links in articles and >HOT LINKS< in the Sidebar.
.
YOU are welcome to call me, minded that I am NOT medically trained, if you believe I can help in ANY way. .

Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins

tel: 01594 – 528 337
Accuracy & Copyright Statement: CLICK HERE
Summary, archive, facts & comments on UKIP: http://UKIP-vs-EUkip.com
DO MAKE USE of LINKS & >Right Side Bar< & The Top Bar >PAGES<
Also:
Details & Links: http://GregLanceWatkins.com
UKIP Its ASSOCIATES & DETAILS: CLICK HERE
Views I almost Totally Share: CLICK HERE
General Stuff archive: http://gl-w.blogspot.com
General Stuff ongoing: http://gl-w.com
Health Blog. Archive: http://GregLW.blogspot.com
Health Blog. Ongoing: http:GregLW.com

TWITTER: Greg_LW

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